This is a preview of a premium article. Subscribe or Log In to gain access.

While visiting London in the summer of 1857, the Baron Carl de Gleichen, a man of complex nationality and advanced views, was set upon by denizens of the Victorian underworld and robbed. His assailants were caught and brought before the Marlborough Street Police Court. However, because the baron would not say he believed in a future state after death in which he would be “rewarded or punished according to his deserts,” they were set free. At English common law, the baron could not take an oath if he did not think a supernatural force would punish him for breaking it,1 and since he was the only witness, there was therefore no evidence with which to convict.

Subscribe or Log In to read more.