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Half a century ago I published “Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation” in the Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science.1 Following Harvard political scientist Louis Hartz’s “fragment” approach to the “new societies” founded by emigrants from Europe, I argued that English Canada is, like the United States, a liberal fragment, but with a “tory touch” sufficiently weighty to give rise, in interaction with liberalism, to a significant socialist movement. My essay was for some reason given a lot of attention and soon enough reviled as the new “conventional wisdom.”

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