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Turkey, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the European Union Geographically and symbolically, Turkey is “on the edge” between the more or less liberal democratic and more or less open market capitalist countries of Europe and the much less democratic and much less market-oriented countries that stretch to the south and east. In 1999, the European Union accepted Turkey as a candidate to join the European Union – but has yet to grant admission. A decade later, whether the EU should accept its Turkish suitor remains one of the divisive topics of European diplomacy.

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