Canada’s best source for informed, lively commentary and
analysis on the issues facing the country — and the world.

Bilinguialism and Biculturalism


Language: how well are we doing?

An introduction by John Richards

A country’s census tells us something about its concerns. The U.S. census affords much data on black/white and Hispanic/white trends in per capita income, education levels, rates of single parenthood and incarceration. Canada’s census affords detailed data on mother tongue (language first understood), language of use (language most used at home), linguistic transfer (switch in language of use) and so on.

Statistics Canada has now rolled out results from the 2006 census. In Quebec overall, French is sustaining its viability more or less. One must be less sanguine about Montreal. On Montreal Island, French speakers (by language of use) enjoy a precarious and declining majority status.

Linda Cardinal provides a tour d’horizon of trends across Canada. Charles Castonguay addresses a specific question: do mother-tongue francophones who come to Canada from outside the country or who migrate interprovincially from Quebec do much to sustain francophone minority communities outside Quebec? After careful analysis of their linguistic transfers, his blunt answer is: no, they don’t. If our immigration policy is intended, in part, to sustain viable francophone communities, francophone immigrants should be encouraged to settle in Quebec or the “Bilingual Belt” in Acadia and eastern Ontario.

Johanne Poirier offers a cautionary tale. Like Canada, Belgium is a country whose founding social contract implies state support for more than one lingua franca. In Belgium, most national institutions have now divided on a linguistic basis. The result is very little French-Flemish bilingual interaction and a country whose national politics have become a hollow shell. The implicit question hovering over her article is: how do we Canadians maintain enough French-English interaction to avoid the fate of her country? Writing from Vancouver, a city where French-English bilingualism is rare – very rare – I am not reassured.

To see the full text of Inroads articles on the web you must Login as, or Register to become, an Online subscriber.

Existing print subscribers should Register and select Existing Subscriber option. We will manually verify your account and then activate it accordingly.

This content is available for purchase for non-members.

Purchase Only

About the Author

John Richards
John Richards is co-publisher of Inroads and an economist at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver.

One Comment

  1. Parpalhon

    Knowledge of French as % of the population is lower and lower every census in Canada and assimilation of French to English is extremely high.

    Knowledge of English as % of the population is higher and higher every census in Québec and assimilation to French is weak for allophones and non-existent for English-speakers.

    Looks like only one of us is doing bearing all the weight, much more than we can support since % of French speakers keeps falling.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *