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It is two generations since the modern Aboriginal movement was born in response to the Trudeau government’s 1969 White Paper calling for an end to any special legal status for indigenous peoples in Canada. It is one generation since section 35 of Trudeau’s new constitution recognized and affirmed the “existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada.“ Those generations have seen a remarkable increase in the legal recognition of Aboriginal identity and Aboriginal economic clout over resources. At the same time, improvements in human development – life expectancy, educational attainment and living standards for the average person – have been disappointingly slow.

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